Beri Izin Ekspor ke Freeport, Pemerintah Menuai Kritik

Beri Izin Ekspor ke Freeport, Pemerintah Menuai Kritik

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JAKARTA – Sejumlah kalangan menyesalkan tindakan pemerintah yang terburu-buru menetapkan izin usaha pertambangan khusus (IUPK) PT Freeport Indonesia. 

Ahli Hukum Tata Usaha Negara Universitas Indonesia, Dian Puji Simatupang, misalnya, berpendapat izin seharusnya diterbitkan jika pemerintah dengan Freeport sudah bersepakat mengakhiri kontrak karya.

Secara hukum, Dian mengemukakan, izin adalah tindakan negara sebagai badan publik. Adapun dalam kontrak, kedudukan pemerintah sejajar dengan subyek hukum perdata lain. 

Akibat penerbitan izin, kedudukan pemerintah menjadi tidak konsisten. “Jadinya setengah-setengah, kuasa publik dan privat. Ini yang seharusnya pemerintah bisa hindari,” ujar Dian dalam diskusi di Jakarta, Kamis, 6 April 2017.

Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral menerbitkan izin Freeport pada 10 Februari lalu. Berdasarkan Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 1 Tahun 2017 tentang Pelaksanaan Kegiatan Usaha Pertambangan Mineral dan Batu Bara, Freeport sebagai pemegang izin harus menaati kewajiban fiskal, aturan pelepasan saham sebesar 51 persen, dan komitmen pembangunan smelter.

Namun perusahaan mangkir dari keputusan pemerintah dan berkukuh mempertahankan kontrak. Kedua pihak sepakat berunding membahas kesediaan alih status sejak Februari lalu. Hasilnya, kata Sekretaris Jenderal Kementerian Energi Mochamad Teguh Pamuji, Freeport menyepakati komitmen perubahan wadah operasi menjadi IUPK.

Adapun negosiasi ihwal kewajiban Freeport baru dimulai pertengahan April nanti. Teguh mengatakan pembahasan akan melibatkan banyak pihak, di antaranya Kementerian Keuangan, Badan Kebijakan Fiskal, Kementerian Dalam Negeri, Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal, dan Kejaksaan Agung.

Direktur Jenderal Mineral dan Batu Bara Kementerian Energi Bambang Gatot mengatakan perundingan juga akan melibatkan pemerintah Papua. Masyarakat di sekitar dan di luar wilayah kerja Freeport pun turut dilibatkan.

Jika perundingan masih buntu, Bambang mengatakan, izin Freeport bakal berakhir. “Kalau dia tidak setuju, bisa kembali ke kontrak karya. Ini kan masa transisi,” ujarnya.

Dian mengatakan negosiasi antara pemerintah dan badan usaha tidak diatur dalam peraturan perundang-undangan. Namun perundingan dibolehkan selama tidak merugikan negara. “Undang-Undang Administrasi Pemerintahan membolehkan itu, yang penting menguntungkan negara,” katanya.

Staf Khusus Menteri Energi Hadi Mustofa Djuraid berdalih penerbitan izin ditujukan untuk memulihkan operasi Freeport di Papua. Kegiatan operasi tambang Freeport hingga kini belum berproduksi maksimal lantaran stok konsentrat tembaga yang belum terjual menumpuk di gudang perusahaan. Pemerintah sempat melarang ekspor konsentrat Freeport sejak 12 Januari hingga 17 Februari.

“IUPK memungkinkan operasi Freeport di Timika kembali normal sehingga tidak timbul ekses ekonomi dan sosial berkepanjangan bagi masyarakat Timika.”

Menteri Energi Ignasius Jonan mengatakan ekspor Freeport juga bisa berakhir jika perusahaan tidak membangun smelter sesuai dengan rencana. “Yang sementara itu izin ekspornya. Tiap enam bulan kami review.”

Juru bicara Freeport, Riza Pratama, enggan menjawab kapan perusahaan bakal melanjutkan ekspor. Dia mengatakan saat ini perusahaan masih terus berunding dengan pemerintah.

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