“Membangunkan” Indonesia, Raksasa Teknologi Digital Asia

“Membangunkan” Indonesia, Raksasa Teknologi Digital Asia

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JAKARTA, NEWSBISNIS.COM – Indonesia adalah “raksasa teknologi digital Asia yang sedang tertidur”. Jumlah penduduk Indonesia yang mencapai 250 juta jiwa adalah pasar yang besar. Pengguna smartphone Indonesia juga bertumbuh dengan pesat. Lembaga riset digital marketing Emarketer memperkirakan pada 2018 jumlah pengguna aktif smartphone di Indonesia lebih dari 100 juta orang. Dengan jumlah sebesar itu, Indonesia akan menjadi negara dengan pengguna aktif smartphone terbesar keempat di dunia setelah Cina, India, dan Amerika.

Cina, negara dengan pengguna smartphone terbanyak di dunia, tahun ini diperkirakan memiliki jumlah pengguna smartphone 574 juta jiwa. Dengan jumlah itu, Cina menjadi negara yang memiliki pendapatan dari dunia online kedua terbesar di dunia setelah Amerika. Data iResearch menyebutkan penjualan online di Cina mencapai 8 persen dari total penjualan retail di negara itu. Diperkirakan pada 2015 penjualan melalui online mencapai 10 persen.

Dengan iklim seperti itu, di Cina kemudian muncul perusahaan retail online Alibaba. Saat ini Alibaba sudah menjadi salah satu dari 14 perusahaan teknologi terkemuka di dunia, di antaranya Google, Facebook, dan Amazon. Kapitalisasi pasar 14 perusahaan itu bila digabungkan mencapai US$ 3 triliun.

Namun kepemilikan smartphone bukan satu-satunya syarat yang harus dipenuhi supaya perkembangan teknologi digital berlangsung cepat. DBS Group Research dalam hasil risetnya, Sink or Swim-Business Impact of Digital Technology, menyimpulkan apabila penetrasi teknologi digital sangat dalam dan penggunaannya meluas, dampak teknologi digital akan semakin dirasakan, khususnya di dunia bisnis.

Contohnya India. Di negara itu, penetrasi Internet belum dalam. Padahal India saat ini adalah negara pengguna smartphone terbanyak nomor tiga di dunia. Tahun depan, India bahkan diperkirakan menyalip Amerika di posisi kedua. Tapi belanja online di negara itu tak melebihi 1 persen dari total penjualan retail pada 2013.

Indonesia tak jauh berbeda dengan India. Penetrasi Internet di Indonesia pada 2014, menurut Internetlivestats, berada di kisaran 17 persen. Sedangkan di India di angka 19 persen. Tingkat penetrasi Internet di Indonesia bahkan kalah jauh dibanding negara-negara Asia Tenggara, seperti Vietnam (43 persen), Filipina (39 persen), Malaysia (40 persen), dan Singapura (81 persen)

Dalam hal persentase belanja online, Indonesia juga tertinggal jauh. Survei yang dilakukan Globalwebindex pada 2014 menemukan persentase penduduk Indonesia yang melakukan pembelian secara online baru sekitar 16 persen. Angka ini sedikit lebih baik daripada India mencatat angka 14 persen. Namun Indonesia tertinggal jauh oleh Singapura yang sudah mencapai angka 46 persen.

Tapi, dengan kondisi penetrasi Internet belum dalam seperti saat ini, Indonesia sudah mulai dilirik investor yang berminat berinvestasi di industri digital. Data dari Techlist seperti dikutip dari media teknologi Techinasia menyebutkan, pada kuartal pertama 2015, di Asia Tenggara ada 93 perusahaan startup (rintisan) yang memperoleh pendanaan. Dari jumlah itu, 24 di antarannya merupakan startup Indonesia. MatahariMall mendapat pendanaan terbesar dengan total investasi Rp 6,51 triliun.

Pada tahun-tahun sebelumnya juga ada beberapa perusahaan digital Indonesia yang mendapat investasi besar. Go-Jek umpamanya, berhasil mendapatkan pendanaan Rp 2,8 triliun dari Northstar Group. Ada juga Tokopedia yang tahun lalu mendapatkan Rp 1,4 triliun dari Softbank dan Sequoia Capital.

Indonesia mempunyai peluang untuk tumbuh sangat cepat dan besar. Kebutuhan terbesar saat ini adalah dukungan dari pemerintah supaya industri digital Indonesia bisa mengatasi ketertinggalan oleh negara lain. Penetrasi Internet harus bisa ditingkatkan dengan cepat. Tidak hanya terfokus di Jawa, tapi juga tersebar di daerah lain di Indonesia. Pemerintah juga harus membuka jalan dan memberikan berbagai insentif agar industri digital ini bisa tumbuh dan mendapat akses pendanaan.

Dibanding Singapura, Indonesia memiliki keunggulan dengan jumlah penduduk yang bisa menjadi pasar sangat besar. Namun langkah progresif sudah banyak dilakukan, sehingga Singapura kini menjelma menjadi pusat ekosistem startup di Asia. Singapura bisa masuk ke pasar-pasar besar Asia, seperti Cina, India, dan Indonesia. Juga Malaysia, Filipina, serta Thailand. Salah satu keunggulan Singapura adalah akses terhadap pendanaan yang sangat besar.

Sejumlah perusahaan digital Singapura sudah merambah Indonesia, antara lain GrabTaxi. Perusahaan yang baru saja mendapatkan suntikan dana sebesar Rp 3,6 triliun dari Softbank ini juga mengembangkan layanan aplikasi transportasi sepeda motor yang diberi nama GrabBike. GrabBike saat ini menjadi pesaing serius perusahaan Indonesia, Go-Jek.

Adapun pemerintah sepertinya sudah mulai menyadari bahwa industri digital penting untuk bisa tumbuh dengan cepat. Menteri Komunikasi dan Informatika Rudiantara pada awal 2015 sempat berjanji akan menghimpun dana US$ 1 miliar dari para pengusaha swasta untuk diinvestasikan ke startup digital.

Baru-baru ini, Rudiantara mengatakan pemerintah akan membangun akses Internet sampai ke desa.Pemerintah juga membuka kesempatan kepada pengembang untuk menyediakan aplikasi digital yang bisa membantu perkembangan potensi desa misalnya di bidang pertanian atau kelautan.

Ini merupakan sinyal bagus dari pemerintah. Apabila terwujud, langkah ini bisa “membangunkan” Indonesia, sehingga benar-benar bisa menjadi “raksasa” teknologi digital Asia atau bahkan dunia.

Sumber : http://www.tempo.co/read/kolom/2015/10/02/2310/indonesia-raksasa-teknologi-digital-asia.

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