Inikah alasan Jokowi sering blusukan ke Sumatera Barat

Inikah alasan Jokowi sering blusukan ke Sumatera Barat

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SUMBAR, NEWSBISNIS.COM – Mengenakan kemeja putih plus celana panjang hitam, Presiden Jokowi berjalan pelan menghampiri ratusan masyarakat Dharmasraya, Sumatera Barat (Sumbar). Dia tidak lupa melambaikan tangan sembari memberikan senyuman. Para warga pun menyambutnya dengan sahutan.

Saat laki-laki kelahiran Solo itu berjabat tangan dengan sejumlah warga, seseorang berteriak, “Jokowi, Jokowi dua periode.”

Kunjungan Jokowi ke Dharmasraya berlangsung pada Rabu (7/9/2018) dan itu adalah hari pertama rangkaian kunjungan 3 hari Jokowi ke Sumbar awal tahun ini.

Sehari setelah berkunjung ke Dharmasraya, Jokowi pergi ke Kota Sawahlunto, menilik kediaman tokoh pers Indonesia Djamaluddin Adinegoro. Pada hari yang sama pula, Jokowi meninjau Gelanggang Olah Raga (GOR) Tuanku Solok di Solok dan pelaksanaan program padat karya tunai di Nagari Limo Kaum, Kabupaten Tanah Datar.

Lalu, dia memungkaskan kunjungannya di Sumbar dengan menghadiri perayaan hari pers nasional di Kota Padang dan meresmikan awal pembangunan jalan tol Padang-Pekanbaru di Padang Pariaman pada Jumat (9/2/2018).

Ini merupakan kunjungan ketiga Jokowi ke Sumbar sejak dilantik sebagai presiden Indonesia pada 2014. Politikus dari Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (PDIP) itu pertama kali pergi ke nagari Minangkabau pada 8-10 Oktober 2015.

Saat itu, Jokowi berkunjung ke Kabupaten Padang Pariaman guna meninjau penggunaan dana desa di Kecamatan Enam Lingkung dan meresmikan Pantai Mandeh sebagai wisata unggulan Kabupaten Pesisir Selatan. Selain itu, presiden ke-7 Indonesia itu juga menengok rumah proklamator Muhammad Hatta lahir di Kota Bukit Tinggi.

Setahun berikutnya, pada 5-6 Juli 2016, Jokowi menjadikan Kota Padang sebagai tempat merayakan Idul Fitri. Menurut Gubernur Sumbar Irwan Prayitno, Jokowi adalah presiden Indonesia pertama yang melaksanakan salat Idul Fitri bersama masyarakat Kota Padang.

Secara keseluruhan, Jokowi telah berkunjung ke 8 dari 19 kabupaten atau kota yang ada di provinsi dengan jumlah penduduk, menurut perhitungan Badan Pusat Statistik tahun 2016, sebesar 5.259.528 jiwa itu.

Siasat Jokowi di Sumatera Barat

Antusiasme masyarakat Dharmasraya terhadap Jokowi memang besar. Meski demikian, jika kembali dilihat dalam gambar yang lebih besar, Jokowi-JK kalah telak di Sumbar pada Pilpres 2014 .

Berdasarkan data Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU), Sumbar merupakan provinsi dengan jumlah daftar pemilih tetap (DPT) terbanyak ke-11 (3.611.551 jiwa) dalam Pilpres 2014. Sebanyak 2.336.813 (64,7 persen) di antaranya menggunakan hak pilihnya untuk mencoblos Jokowi-JK atau Prabowo-Hatta dengan porsi bervariasi pada setiap kabupaten atau kota, dari 23.349 sampai 388.548 pemiih. Rata-rata jumlah DPT tiap kebupaten atau kota di Sumbar sebesar 122.990 jiwa.

Dari sekian banyak orang itu, Jokowi-JK mampu meraup 539.308 suara  alias hanya 23,07 persen. Sementara rivalnya, Prabowo-Hatta, mendapat 1.797.505 suara (76,93 persen).

Pasangan calon yang diusung Koalisi Indonesia Hebat itu pun kalah suara di seluruh kabupaten atau kota di Sumbar, kecuali Kabupaten Kepulauan Mentawai. Selisih suara yang menjadikan Prabowo-Hatta menang atas Jokowi-JK di Sumbar bervariasi dari 31 sampai 71 persen dengan rata-rata sebesar 57 persen—tanpa memasukkan data Kepulauan Mentawai.

Menariknya, setelah menjadi presiden, Jokowi mengunjungi dua kabupaten dengan selisih suara tertipis. Dharmasraya merupakan kabupaten di mana Jokowi-JK kalah suara paling tipis dengan Prabowo-Hatta (31,25 persen). Sementara itu, Pesisir Selatan menyusul di bawah nya. Di situ, Jokowi-JK dan Prabowo-Hatta berselisih suara sebesar 43,19 persen.

Selain itu, 5 dari 8 kabupaten atau kota di Sumbar yang dikunjungi Jokowi memiliki jumlah DPT Pilpres 2014 di atas rata-rata. Misalnya, Kota Padang. Ibukota provinsi tersebut menjadi wilayah dengan DPT terbesar (388.548 jiwa) di Sumbar.

Sedangkan jumlah DPT di Pesisir Selatan menempati urutan ketiga (205.524 jiwa) diikuti Padang Pariaman (178.293 jiwa) di peringkat keempat.

Dua wilayah Sumbar yang dikunjungi Jokowi menarik disorot juga adalah Solok dan Tanah Datar. Solok adalah kabupaten di mana Jokowi-JK kalah suara paling besar dengan Prabowo-Hatta (71,11 persen). Namun, ia memiliki jumlah DPT sebesar 164.973 jiwa. Angka itu menjadikan Solok sebagai wilayah dengan jumlah DPT terbesar ke-8.

Sedangkan Tanah Datar merupakan wilayah ayahnya Mufidah Mi’ad Saad—istri Jusuf Kalla—berasal. Dalam Pilpres 2014, Jokowi-JK hanya mampu mendapatkan 40.187 suara (23,97 persen) di sana.

Daerah-Daerah Transmigran

Salah satu tujuan yang dapat ditangkap dari kunjungan Jokowi ke Sumbar kali ini: wilayah-wilayah tersebut merupakan daerah tujuan transmigrasi orang Jawa di Sumbar.

Berdasarkan data Bursa Transmigrasi Provinsi Sumbar, program Transmigrasi di Sumbar telah dilaksanakan sejak 1953. Para transmigran berasal dari DKI Jakarta, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Yogyakarta, dan Jawa Timur. Sedangkan daerah tujuan transmigrasi di Sumbar tersebar di 8 kabupaten: Pasaman Barat, Sijunjung, Dharmasraya, Pesisir Selatan, Kepulauan Mentawai, Solok Selatan, dan Padang Pariaman.

Di kedelapan wilayah tersebut, selisih suara Jokowi-JK dengan Prabowo-Hatta berada di bawah rata-rata. Artinya, meskipun kalah, Jokowi-JK setidaknya masih punya taji.

Blusukan Jokowi di Lumbung Kemenangan Prabowo, Sumatera Barat

Prabowo, Soemitro, dan Sumatera Barat

Satu benang merah yang tidak bisa dilewatkan ketika bicara Jokowi dan PDI Perjuangan (berikut rivalitasnya dengan Prabowo) dengan Sumbar adalah sejarah Pemerintahan Revolusioner Republik Indonesia (PRRI).

Daniel S. Lev dan Herberth Feith, dalam The End of Indonesian Rebellion, menyebutkan ada dua kelompok besar yang berebut kekuasaan sejak 1956. Kelompok pertama dikenal sebagai kelompok regionalis yang terdiri dari petinggi militer dan anggota partai Masyumi. Mereka menyatakan kelompok kedua yang dipimpin Sukarno terlalu terpusat, birokratis, korup, dan tidak memerhatikan situasi di luar Jawa. Kelompok regionalis pun membentuk Dewan Banteng pada 1956 di Sumbar.

Puncaknya, pada 15 Februari 1958, Dewan Banteng memproklamasikan PRRI di Kota Padang dengan Sjafruddin Prawiranegara sebagai perdana menteri. Sukarno menyebut itu sebagai pemberontakan.

Salah satu tokoh pendukung PRRI adalah Soemitro Djojohadikusumo alias ayah Prabowo Subianto.

Guru Besar Sejarah Universitas Andalas Gusti Asnan mengatakan kepada Tirto bahwa suasana keterbelahan politik antara Jokowi dan Prabowo dalam Pilpres 2014 di Sumbar merepresentasikan pertarungan antara kelompok regional dengan kelompok Sukarno pada 1950-an.

“Partai pendukung Jokowi kan PDIP. Itu relatif hampir sama dengan PNI [Partai Nasional Indonesia] yang dipimpin Sukarno. Sedangkan di sisi lain, Prabowo representasi dari sosok ayahnya, Soemitro Djojohadikusumo yang waktu itu pro-PRRI,” ujar penulis buku Memikir ulang Regionalisme: Sumatera Barat tahun 1950-an (2007).

Namun, Gusti enggan menyebutkan sentimen PRRI mempengaruhi hasil Pilpres 2014 di Sumbar karena sampai saat ini belum ada penelitian empiris dan akademis mengenai hal tersebut.

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